Backend technologies used by Facebook or LinkedIn. We've compiled a list of the most popular backend languages and backend frameworks.
What is Backend?
The backend is the server side of a 3-tier application. It is responsible for processing business logic and accessing the data tier. However, it is important to mention that some parts of business logic might appear on the frontend (the more logic appears the thicker the frontend tier will be). The backend is everything that the frontend is not. Backend technologies include server-side programming languages, backend frameworks, and databases.
The Most Popular Backend Technologies
Let's look at the backend parts one by one!
Let's start with programming languages, highlighting the most popular backend frameworks today! We'll also show you some examples of well-known companies' use of backend programming languages.
In addition, we'll look at some databases and communication systems.
If your project is based on any of the technologies listed below and you require experienced senior developers, please let us know and we will assist you on a daily rate!
Top 8 Backend Programming Languages And Frameworks
Java is one of the most popular programming languages. Developers have been using it for over 20 years. It is very a versatile, platform-independent, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Oracle owns Java since 2009. It can be used for Android application development, web applications development, image processing, game development, and almost anything else. According to Oracle, more than 12 million developers are using the Java programming language.
Popular Java Backend Frameworks
Famous Websites Using Java Backend
Twitter, LinkedIn, and eBay. But for example, NASA also prefers Java for backend development.
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In short, it is a general-purposed, server-side scripting language. The main area of use: building dynamic websites. It can also run from the command prompt and is used to build client-side applications.
Today most websites use PHP. This ratio moves between 60-70%.
PHP can be used to build dynamic websites, manage forms, manage cookies, programming server-side file commands and also create desktop applications.
Popular Python Backend Frameworks
The Following Websites Use PHP Backend
Facebook, Wikipedia, Tumblr, Slack, DocuSign, WordPress, Yahoo.
Python is the programming language with the most dynamically growing popularity. It is a versatile programming language. Its syntax is simple and easy to understand with elegant and readable code, even for junior developers. Moreover, it is a very high-level programming language with open-source code.
Python can be used for web development, machine learning, AI development, game development, desktop application development, and also for web crawler development. The use of Python among backend technologies is growing day by day.
Python Backend Frameworks That Are Popular
Famous Websites Using Python Backend
Mozilla, Spotify, Pinterest, Google, Facebook, and Youtube have also used it.
LinkedIn, eBay, PayPal, Netflix, and Uber, but Google also uses it.
Kotlin is an ideal programming language for backend development. It enables the creation of concise and expressive codes. Another great advantage of Kotlin is its compatibility with Java. This was the original plan: JetBrains aimed to create a modern, safe and interoperable language for JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Other uniqueness: Kotlin was developed to dynamize the sales of IDEA.
Currently, Kotlin is one of the most dynamically growing languages on GitHub.
The good old Java libraries are accessible from Kotlin anytime.
Famous Websites That Use Kotlin as a Backend
Trello, Shazam, Uber, Postmates, Evernote, Kickstarter, Coursera, etc.
Shortly, Ruby is a general-purpose open-source programming language. Ruby's popularity among backend technologies is declining. Not long ago, Ruby on Rails was the most popular backend framework, but now it is only the fifth.
Ruby on Rail’s framework can be used for building web applications. In the first place, the framework enables the development of web applications. Furthermore, the advantage of using Ruby is its high scalability, it enables development time and cost-efficiently, and its codes are clear and consistent. However, the availability of documentation is insufficient, and it can be problematic in the case of web applications for which running time is a key factor. It is less widespread than other programming languages.
It can be used for web application development, thus for e-commerce solutions or streaming services.
Popular Ruby Backend Frameworks
Ruby Backend is used by
Airbnb, GitHub, Shopify, etc.
Go is a programming language developed by Google that is. syntactically similar to C. Its popularity has been relatively low to date.
Go is very efficient in managing concurrent users, as a result, millions of users can use the same online service at the same time. Besides, Golang is an open-source programming language with clear syntax.
Its advantages are speed, simplicity, automatic memory management, and also scalability.
Famous Websites With Go Backend
Google, Dropbox, and Docker
C# is one of the most popular, object-oriented programming languages of the .NET framework. Previously .NET applications were only available for Windows, but in 2016 .NET Core was introduced.
With the arrival of .NET Core, Microsoft made .NET available on macOS and Linux.
Popular Websites Using C# backend
MSN, Bing, StackOverflow, GoDaddy.
Top Backend Frameworks (2012-2022) - Historical Overview Of Backend Technologies
Choose The Right Backend Languages For Your Business!
* source: https://mxx.news/backend-language-to-learn-in-2020-comparing-community-job-market-cloud-support-and-performance/
** source: Bluebirds own internal survey based on the number of requests in IT Recruitment and IT Staff Augmentation
It was measured based on the PYPL (Popularity of Programming Language) index. Google calculates the index based on how frequently users google for training materials for a given programming language.
The number of registered questions about the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)
The Size of the Active Community
The number of active threads related to the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)
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The Most Popular Databases