Top Backend Technologies and Frameworks

Backend Programming Languages And Backend Frameworks You Need To Know

Balazs Refi

January 25, 2023

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Backend technologies used by Facebook or LinkedIn. We've compiled a list of the most popular backend languages and backend frameworks.


What is Backend?

The backend is the server side of a 3-tier application. It is responsible for processing business logic and accessing the data tier. However, it is important to mention that some parts of business logic might appear on the frontend (the more logic appears the thicker the frontend tier will be). The backend is everything that the frontend is not. Backend technologies include server-side programming languages, backend frameworks, and databases. 

What is backend? Bluebird blog

The Most Popular Backend Technologies

Backend Technology Elements - Bluebird Blog

Let's look at the backend parts one by one!

Let's start with programming languages, highlighting the most popular backend frameworks today! We'll also show you some examples of well-known companies' use of backend programming languages.

In addition, we'll look at some databases and communication systems.

If your project is based on any of the technologies listed below and you require experienced senior developers, please let us know and we will assist you on a daily rate!

Top 8 Backend Programming Languages And Frameworks

Java icon


Java is one of the most popular programming languages. Developers have been using it for over 20 years. It is very a versatile, platform-independent, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Oracle owns Java since 2009. It can be used for Android application development, web applications development, image processing, game development, and almost anything else. According to Oracle, more than 12 million developers are using the Java programming language.

Popular Java Backend Frameworks

Backend Frameworks - Spring - Bluebird blog
Backend Frameworks - Struts - Bluebird blog
Backend Frameworks - Hibernate - Bluebird blog

Discover more about Spring, Struts, and Hibernate!

Famous Websites Using Java Backend

Twitter, LinkedIn, and eBay. But for example, NASA also prefers Java for backend development.

If you Are Short On Java Developers

Contact us, we can provide Java developers for your projects for a daily fee. 


In short, it is a general-purposed, server-side scripting language. The main area of use: building dynamic websites. It can also run from the command prompt and is used to build client-side applications.

Today most websites use PHP. This ratio moves between 60-70%.
PHP can be used to build dynamic websites, manage forms, manage cookies, programming server-side file commands and also create desktop applications.

Popular Python Backend Frameworks

Backend framework - Lavavel - Bluebird Blog
Backend framework - CodeIgniter - Bluebird Blog
Backend framework - Symfony - Bluebird Blog

Learn more about Laravel, CodeIgniter, and Symfony!

The Following Websites Use PHP Backend

Facebook, Wikipedia, Tumblr, Slack, DocuSign, WordPress, Yahoo.

PHP icon

Python icon


Python is the programming language with the most dynamically growing popularity. It is a versatile programming language. Its syntax is simple and easy to understand with elegant and readable code, even for junior developers. Moreover, it is a very high-level programming language with open-source code.

Python can be used for web development, machine learning, AI development, game development, desktop application development, and also for web crawler development. The use of Python among backend technologies is growing day by day.

Python Backend Frameworks That Are Popular

Backend frameworks - Django - Bluebird Blog
Backend frameworks - Flask - Bluebird Blog

Explore Django, and Flask!

Famous Websites Using Python Backend

Mozilla, Spotify, Pinterest, Google, Facebook, and Youtube have also used it.

More About Python Backend

1. You can read more about Python in our blog post.

2. If you're looking for Python developers: contact us, we can provide Python developers for your projects for a daily fee. 

Backend technologies - Bluebird blog
Most Popular Backend Frameworks - 2022 - Bluebird  Blog


No, it is not a mistake. Even though Javascript is known as a frontend scripting language, there are software frameworks (ex.: Node.js) that can be used for backend-side development.

Node.js has excellent scalability and speed, which is essential for websites with high traffic. Development time can be a fraction of other programming languages given that both frontend and backend use Javascript.

Popular JavaScript Backend Frameworks

Backend framework - NextJS - Bluebird blog
Backend framework - Express - Bluebird blog
Backend framework - NodeJS - Bluebird blog

Learn about Next.js, Express.js, and node.js!

The Following Websites Use JavaScript Backend

LinkedIn, eBay, PayPal, Netflix, and Uber, but Google also uses it.

If you Are Short On JavaScript Developers

Contact us, we can provide JavaScript developers for your projects for a daily fee. 

Javascript icon

Kotlin icon


Kotlin is an ideal programming language for backend development. It enables the creation of concise and expressive codes. Another great advantage of Kotlin is its compatibility with Java. This was the original plan: JetBrains aimed to create a modern, safe and interoperable language for JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Other uniqueness: Kotlin was developed to dynamize the sales of IDEA.

Currently, Kotlin is one of the most dynamically growing languages on GitHub.

The good old Java libraries are accessible from Kotlin anytime.

Famous Websites That Use Kotlin as a Backend

Trello, Shazam, Uber, Postmates, Evernote, Kickstarter, Coursera, etc.


Shortly, Ruby is a general-purpose open-source programming language. Ruby's popularity among backend technologies is declining. Not long ago, Ruby on Rails was the most popular backend framework, but now it is only the fifth.

Ruby on Rail’s framework can be used for building web applications. In the first place, the framework enables the development of web applications. Furthermore, the advantage of using Ruby is its high scalability, it enables development time and cost-efficiently, and its codes are clear and consistent. However, the availability of documentation is insufficient, and it can be problematic in the case of web applications for which running time is a key factor. It is less widespread than other programming languages.

It can be used for web application development, thus for e-commerce solutions or streaming services.

Popular Ruby Backend Frameworks

Ruby framework - Ruby on Rails - Bluebird blog
Ruby framework - Sinatra - Bluebird blog

Ruby Backend is used by

Airbnb, GitHub, Shopify, etc.

Ruby icon

Go icon


Go is a programming language developed by Google that is. syntactically similar to C. Its popularity has been relatively low to date.

Go is very efficient in managing concurrent users, as a result, millions of users can use the same online service at the same time. Besides, Golang is an open-source programming language with clear syntax.

Its advantages are speed, simplicity, automatic memory management, and also scalability.

Famous Websites With Go Backend

Google, Dropbox, and Docker


C# is one of the most popular, object-oriented programming languages of the .NET framework. Previously .NET applications were only available for Windows, but in 2016 .NET Core was introduced.

With the arrival of .NET Core, Microsoft made .NET available on macOS and Linux.

Popular Websites Using C# backend

MSN, Bing, StackOverflow, GoDaddy.

CSharp icon

Top Backend Frameworks (2012-2022) - Historical Overview Of Backend Technologies


Choose The Right Backend Languages For Your Business!

Backend technologies - Bluebird

Comparison of backend technologies based on popularity, community, and job offerings.

* source:

** source: Bluebirds own internal survey based on the number of requests in IT Recruitment and IT Staff Augmentation


It was measured based on the PYPL (Popularity of Programming Language) index. Google calculates the index based on how frequently users google for training materials for a given programming language.

Community Size

The number of registered questions about the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)

The Size of the Active Community

The number of active threads related to the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)

Freelancer: How Easy It Is to Find a Project as a Freelancer

Bluebird’s own internal survey is based on the number of incoming project requests in IT Staff Augmentation.

Employees: How Easy It Is to Find a Project as an Employee

Bluebird’s own internal survey is based on the number of incoming project requests in IT Recruitment.

The Most Popular Databases


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