Popular Backend Technologies

Balazs Refi

September 20, 2021

What are the backend technologies that Facebook or LinkedIn uses? We present the most popular backend technologies.


What is the Backend?

Backend is the server-side of a 3-tier application. It is responsible for processing business logic and accessing the data tier. However, it is important to mention that some parts of business logic might appear on the frontend (the more logic appears the thicker the frontend tier will be).

In other words, Backend (back-end, or back end) is everything that the frontend is not.

What is backend? Bluebird blog

The Most Popular Back End Technologies

Backend - Java


Java is one of the most popular programming languages. Developers have been using it for over 20 years. It is very a versatile, platform-independent, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Oracle owns Java since 2009. It can be used for Android application development, web applications development, image processing, game development and almost anything else. According to Oracle, more than 12 million developers are using the Java programming language.

The following websites used Java backend technologies: Twitter, LinkedIn, and eBay. But for example, NASA also prefers Java for Backend Development.


In short, it is a general-purposed, server-side scripting language. The main area of use: building dynamic websites. It can also run from the command prompt and is used to build client-side applications.

Today most websites use PHP. This ratio moves between 60-70%.
PHP can be used to build dynamic websites, manage forms, manage cookies, programming server-side file commands and also create desktop applications.

The following websites use PHP backend:

Facebook, Wikipedia, Tumblr, Slack, DocuSign, WordPress, Yahoo.

Backend - PHP
Backend - Python


Python is the programming language with the most dynamically growing popularity. It is a versatile programming language. Its syntax is simple and easy to understand with elegant and readable code. Moreover, it is a very high-level programming language with open source code.

Python can be used for web development, machine learning, AI development, game development, desktop application development and also for web crawler development.

Python is available at the following websites:

Mozilla, Spotify, Pinterest, but Google, Facebook, and Youtube have also used it.

Backend technologies - Bluebird blog


No, it is not a mistake. Even though Javascript is known as a frontend scripting language, there are software frameworks (ex.: Node.js) that can be used for backend side development.

Node.js has excellent scalability and speed, which is essential for websites with high traffic. Development time can be a fraction of other programming languages given that both frontend and backend use Javascript.

A Javascript backed is available at the following websites:

LinkedIn, eBay, PayPal, Netflix, Uber, but Google also uses it.

Backend - Javascript
Backend - Kotlin


Kotlin is an ideal programming language for backend development. It enables the creation of concise and expressive codes. Another great advantage of Kotlin is its compatibility with Java. This was the original plan: JetBrains aimed to create a modern, safe and interoperable language for JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Other uniqueness: Kotlin was developed to dynamize the sales of IDEA.

Currently, Kotlin is one of the most dynamically growing languages on GitHub.

The good old Java libraries are accessible from Kotlin anytime.

Kotlin backend is available on the following websites:

Trello, Shazam, Uber, Postmates, Evernote, Kickstarter, Coursera, etc.


Shortly, Ruby is a general-purpose open-source programming language. Ruby on Rail’s framework can be used for building web applications.

In the first place, the framework enables the development of web applications.

Furthermore, the advantage of using Ruby is its high scalability, it enables development time-and cost-efficiently, and its codes are clear and consistent. However, the availability of documentation is insufficient, and it can be problematic in the case of web applications for which running time is a key factor. It is less widespread than other programming languages.

It can be used for web application development, thus for e-commerce solutions or streaming services.

The following websites use the Ruby backend:

Airbnb, GitHub, and Shopify, etc.

Backend - Ruby
Backend - GO


Go is a programming language developed by Google that is. syntactically similar to C. Its popularity has been relatively low to date.

Go is very efficient in managing concurrent users, as a result, millions of users can use the same online service at the same time. Besides, Golang is an open-source programming language with clear syntax.

Its advantages are speed, simplicity, automatic memory management, and also scalability.

Google, Dropbox, and Docker, among others, use the Go backend.


C# is one of the most popular, object-oriented programming languages of the .NET framework. Previously .NET applications were only available for Windows, but in 2016 .NET Core was introduced.

With the arrival of .NET Core, Microsoft made .NET available on macOS and Linux.

C# backend is available at the following websites: MSN, Bing, StackOverflow, GoDaddy.

Backend - CSharp




- Project managers, scrum masters

- Business analysts, product owners, system analysts

- Software developers

- DevOps engineers

- Manual and automation testers

- Operators

Top Backend Frameworks 2012-2020 

*Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9z_2wmJOom4

Choosing the Right Backend Technology for Your Business

Backend technologies - Bluebird

Comparison of backend technologies based on popularity, community, and job offerings.


It was measured based on the PYPL (Popularity of Programming Language) index. Google calculates the index based on how frequently users google for training materials for a given programming language.

The Size of the Community

The number of registered questions about the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)

The Size of the Active Community

The number of active threads related to the given programming language on StackOverflow (until May 15th, 2020)

How Easy It Is to Find a Project as a Freelancer

Bluebird’s own internal survey based on the number of incoming project requests in IT Staff Augmentation.

How Easy It Is to Find a Project as an Employee

Bluebird’s own internal survey based on the number of incoming project requests in IT Recruitment.

* source: https://mxx.news/backend-language-to-learn-in-2020-comparing-community-job-market-cloud-support-and-performance/

** source: Bluebirds own internal survey based the number of requests in IT Recruitment and IT Staff Augmentation

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